Protocols

Protocols

HYPOTHERMIA

Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature. Normal body temperature is around 98.6 F (37 C). Hypothermia (hi-poe-THUR-me-uh) occurs as your body temperature falls below 95 F (35 C).

HYPOGLYCAEMIA

Hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels fall below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). ... Hypoglycemia occurs when the level of glucose present in the blood falls below a set point.

HYPOCALCAEMIA

Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum. The normal range is 2.1–2.6 mmol/l (8.8–10.7 mg/dl, 4.3–5.2 mEq/l) with levels less than 2.1 mmol/l defined as hypocalcemia

HYPEROSMOLAR, HYPERGLYCAEMIC, NON-KETOTIC STATE (HHNS)

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis. Symptoms include signs of dehydration, weakness, legs cramps, trouble seeing, and an altered level of consciousness.

HYPERKALAEMIA

Hyperkalemia is the medical term that describes a potassium level in your blood that's higher than normal. Potassium is a chemical that is critical to the function of nerve and muscle cells, including those in your heart. Your blood potassium level is normally 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).

HYPERCALCAEMIA

Hypercalcaemia is the most frequently encountered endocrine/electrolyte disorder in malignancy-associated hospitalised patients

HUMAN & ANIMAL BITES

Human and animal bites are relatively common and can result in minor injuries such as puncture wounds, scrapes, cuts or bruising.

HEAD INJURIES

A head injury is an injury to the brain, skull, or scalp. It can be hard to assess the severity of the injury just by looking.

HAND INJURIES

Hand injuries are common and can invlove a variety of structures such as the skin, tendons, nerves, blood vessels, bones and joints.

HAEMATEMASIS & MALENA

Haematemesis is the vomiting of blood, either bright or altered blood (so-called 'coffee grounds' vomitus), due to the action of acid on the blood.

GASTROENTERITIS IN CHILDREN

Gastroenteritis (gastro) is a bowel infection, usually caused by a virus. It causes runny, watery stool and sometimes vomiting.

FOREIGN BODIES IN ENT & GIT

Patients with foreign bodies (FB)in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract commonly present to the emergency department (ED).